Pollen-derived paleovegetation reconstruction and long-term carbon accumulation at a fen site in the Attawapiskat River watershed, Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada
The Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) constitute a globally significant carbon pool; the paleoecological record provides an opportunity to investigate long-term drivers of change in carbon accumulation and related changes in vegetation. This paper presents a Holocene record from a site in Ontario's HBL to reconstruct vegetation history, quantify rates of carbon accumulation, and determine the role of paleoclimatic drivers.
Influence of post-harvest silviculture on understory vegetation - Implications for forage in a multi-ungulate system
Natural disturbance emulation has emerged as a key management approach to maintaining biodiversity in logged boreal forests. Forest managers’ success in emulating understory forest ecosystem functions, e.g., for the provision of habitat even for large mammals, has not been tested due, in many cases, to incomplete records of silviculture (forest management practices). This study examines regenerating areas of previously conifer-dominated forests in northwestern Ontario, Canada, 10 and 30 years after logging and 10 and 30 years after fire to test if understory development and moose (Alces alces) forage abundance differed between the two disturbance types and artificial or natural regeneration approaches.
Predicting non-inventoried forest elements using forest inventory data - The case of winter forage for caribou
Growing development pressures and expectations that forest managers provide future wildlife habitat require better understanding of species' habitat needs, particularly food, cover, and space requirements, and an ability to spatially depict these needs. In forest management in Canada, the primary data used to identify and quantify wildlife habitat reside in remotely sensed forest resource inventories (FRI) that were originally developed to assess timber values for merchantable tree species. Although FRI- and field-based sampling do not always show strong agreement, research has shown that FRI can be informative for wildlife habitat assessments. This study uses 152 plots in northwestern Ontario to compare the ability of field-based and remotely sensed forest inventories to predict Cladonia lichen cover, a primary winter food source for woodland caribou.
Spatial genetic and morphologic structure of wolves and coyotes in relations to environmental heterogeneity in a Canis hybrid zone
Eastern wolves have hybridized extensively with coyotes and gray wolves and are listed as a 'species of special concern' in Canada. However, a distinct population of eastern wolves has been identified in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP) in Ontario. Previous studies of the diverse Canis hybrid zone adjacent to APP have not linked genetic analysis with field data to investigate genotype-specific morphology or determine how resident animals of different ancestry are distributed across the landscape in relation to heterogeneous environmental conditions. Accordingly, this study examines resident wolves and coyotes in and adjacent to APP to identify distinct Canis types, clarify the extent of the APP eastern wolf population beyond the park boundaries, and investigate fine-scale spatial genetic structure and landscape-genotype associations in the hybrid zone.
Genetic and environmental influences on pup mortality risk for wolves and coyotes within a Canis hybrid zone
Eastern wolves (Canis lycaon) are a species of special concern federally in Canada that have hybridized extensively with coyotes (Canis latrans) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) in and adjacent to Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario. A comprehensive understanding of eastern wolf demography and wolf-coyote hybridization dynamics is needed for informed management, yet no studies have investigated the influence of genetic ancestry and environmental heterogeneity on survival of wolf, coyote, and hybrid pups. This study uses telemetry, genetic, and environmental data to model and estimate genotype-specific survival and cause-specific mortality of Canis pups in eastern and western APP and the adjacent Wildlife Management Unit 49.
Inter-specific territoriality in a Canis hybrid zone - spatial segregation between wolves, coyotes, and hybrids
Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) generally exhibit intraspecific territoriality manifesting in spatial segregation between adjacent packs. However, previous studies have found a high degree of interspecific spatial overlap between nearby wolves and coyotes. Eastern wolves (Canis lycaon) are the most common wolf in and around Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada and hybridize with proximal gray wolves and coyotes. This study tests the hypothesis that all Canis types (wolves, coyotes, and hybrids) exhibit a high degree of spatial segregation due to greater genetic, morphologic, and ecological similarities between wolves and coyotes in this hybrid system compared with western North American ecosystems.
(Alces alces) predation by eastern coyotes (Canis latrans) and eastern coyote x eastern wolf (Canis latrans x Canis lycaon) hybrids
It has been widely assumed that coyotes (Canis latrans) are incapable of killing adult moose (Alces alces) and previous studies of coyote predation support this assumption. However, eastern coyotes and eastern coyote × eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) are larger than western coyotes and appear to rely on larger prey in some areas. This study uses a combination of GPS telemetry, genetic analysis, and field investigation to test the hypothesis that eastern coyotes and coyote × wolf hybrids are capable of preying on adult moose in central Ontario.
A protected area influences genotype-specific survival and the structure of a Canis hybrid zone
It is widely recognized that protected areas can strongly influence ecological systems and that hybridization is an important conservation issue. However, previous studies have not explicitly considered the influence of protected areas on hybridization dynamics. Eastern wolves are a species of special concern and their distribution is largely restricted to a protected population in Algonquin Provincial Park (APP), Ontario, Canada, where they are the numerically dominant canid. This study examines intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing survival and cause-specific mortality of hybrid and parental canids in the three-species hybrid zone between eastern wolves, eastern coyotes, and gray wolves in and adjacent to APP.
Varestrongylus eleguneniensis sp. n. (Nematoda, Protostrongylidae) - a widespread, multi-host lungworm of North American ungulates, with an emended diagnosis for the genus
A putative new species of nematode (Varestrongylus) has been recently recognized in wild North American ungulates. Recent collections of adult nematodes from the bronchioles of caribou and muskoxen now allow a complete species description and characterization. This study proposes the establishment of Varestrongylus eleguneniensis species name for this geographically wide-spread, multi-host protostrongylid lungworm occurring across northern North America.
Resurrection and redescription of Varestrongylus alces (Nematoda; Protostrongylidae), a lungworm of the Eurasian moose (Alces alces), with report on associated pathology
Varestrongylus alces, a lungworm in Eurasian moose from Europe has been considered a junior synonym of Varestrongylus capreoli, in European roe deer, due to a poorly detailed morphological description and the absence of a type-series. This study uses combined morphological and molecular approaches to resurrect and redescribe V. alces.
A Walk on the Tundra - Host-parasite interactions in an extreme environment
Climate change is occurring very rapidly in the Arctic, and the processes that have taken millions of years to evolve in this very extreme environment are now changing on timescales as short as decades. These changes are dramatic, subtle and non-linear. This article discusses the evolving insights into host– parasite interactions for wild ungulate species, specifically, muskoxen and caribou, in the North American Arctic.
Sentinels in a climatic outpost - endoparasites in the introduced muskox (Ovibos moschatus) population of Dovrefjell, Norway
This study provides baseline information on the fauna, prevalence, and intensity of endoparasites among different age classes of the Dovrefjell muskox population during the summer of 2012. Further, it investigates lungworm transmission dynamics during the short summer season, to facilitate future research.
A Nearctic parasite in a Palearctic host - Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda; Protostrongylidae) infecting semi-domesticated reindeer in Alaska
Parelaphostrongylus andersoni is a muscle-dwelling nematode that infects caribou and white-tailed deer across North America, and can cause significant muscular and pulmonary pathology in these species. This paper provides the first report of P. andersoni in a herd of introduced reindeer from Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA, and discuss the broader significance of host movements and colonization in ungulates of North America.
Invasion, establishment, and range expansion of two protostrongylid nematodes in the Canadian Arctic
Climate warming is occurring at an unprecedented rate in the Arctic and is having profound effects on host-parasite interactions, including range expansion. Recently, two species of protostrongylid nematodes have emerged for the first time in muskoxen and caribou on Victoria Island in the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago. This study examines the mechanisms of invasion of these nematodes.
Parasites in Arctic ungulates of North America and Greenland - A view of Contemporary Diversity, Ecology and Impact in a World under changes
Parasites play an important role in the structure and function of arctic ecosystems, systems that are currently experiencing an unprecedented rate of change due to various anthropogenic perturbations, including climate change. This article provides a contemporary view of the diversity of nematode, cestode, trematode, protozoan and arthropod parasites of ungulates in arctic and subarctic North America and Greenland.

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